By Isaac Husik
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Additional resources for A History of Medieval Jewish Philosophy
Some light one (or, alternately, six) yellow memorial (yahrzeit) candle(s) in their homes in the evening, and attend one of the many synagogue, church, and institutional programs held throughout the country on this day. The latter usually feature a survivor, child of survivors, or a Righteous Gentile speaker. The Sabbath There is no scholarly consensus about how the Sabbath (or day of not working) began, unless one is a traditionalist and afﬁrms that it began at the end of the sixth day of creation when, according to Genesis, God ﬁnished working and began a day of not working (2:2).
But this must be combined with every effort to rectify the wrong: “For transgressions between man and God, the Day of Atonement atones. ”61 The liturgy for Yom Kippur, which covers nearly every waking hour from the evening of Yom Kippur (the Kol Nidre service) to the ﬁnal service (neilah or closing), contains abundant confessional prayers (during 30 , , - which traditional Jews beat their breasts), but these are written in the plural and recited by the whole community collectively, even by those who might not have committed any speciﬁc sin enumerated.
CHAPTER THREE A History of Judaism in America The Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries Hard-pressed to escape the clutches of the Inquisition during the two centuries following expulsion from their Spanish and Portuguese homelands in 1492 and 1497, respectively, many Iberian Jews ﬂed to the Netherlands where the Dutch enthusiastically welcomed these (mostly) businessmen and their families. While thriving in Amsterdam—where they became the hub of a unique urban Jewish universe and attained a status that anticipated Jewish emancipation in France by over a century—they began in the 1500s and 1600s to establish themselves in the Dutch and English colonies in the New World.